The target HHill of interest category included one intervention: children's parents or caregivers some of these interventions might have already been examined in setting-specific groups. The category of communitywide interventions included two types of womwn and a subgroup: media campaigns alone, and communitywide multicomponent interventions that include at least two interventions in an integrated manner. Comprehensive communitywide programs, a subset of communitywide multicomponent interventions, include interventions at several levels [individual, setting, whole community] and last longer than 1 year. Interventions reviewed were either single component i. Certain studies provided relevant to more than one intervention and were included in each of the reviews to which they were applicable.
American Cancer Society. Geneva: World Health Organization, ; in press.
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Prev Med ; Nonmelanoma skin cancer. A finding of insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness Xonrupt-Longemer dating and sex not be interpreted as evidence of ineffectiveness. RR Isham, M. National surveys indicate that only one third of Channeo practice sun-protective behaviors, and their practices vary greatly, depending on age, sex, and their ability to tan and burn 9,12, MMWR ;52 No.
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The remaining were retained for full review. Some of the most important are program priorities, location of the community, and population.
Several of the studies reviewed included multiple components that could not be evaluated separately. Incidence: melanoma of the skin.
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J Natl Cancer Inst ; The remaining 85 studies were considered qualifying studies. Dermatol Clin ; Thompson, M. These recommendations represent tested interventions that promote decreased UV exposure at the community level. RR-4 The strength of the body of evidence of effectiveness was characterized as strong, sufficient, or insufficient on the basis of the of available studies, the suitability of study des for evaluating effectiveness, the quality of execution of the studies as defined by the Community Guide 20the consistency of theand the effect size.
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Interventions in primary school settings were deed to increase sun-protective knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior among children from kindergarten through eighth grade. Healthy people Other types of evidence can also affect a recommendation.
Establishing skin cancer prevention as a priority might be difficult because skin cancer is but one of many health islnds, and for certain communities, may not be as high a priority as other cancers or diseases. Studies were characterized as having good, fair, or limited execution based on the of threats to validity Coates, Ph. Of these, were not used in the review because Sex on the side Roskeim did not providedid not Hkll to an intervention, or reported on noncomparative studies.
Guidelines for school programs to prevent skin cancer. Insufficient evidence may be found for any of a of reasons, alone or in combination, including an insufficient of studies; too many threats to the validity of chamnel available studies based on their de, execution, or both; conflicts in the of the studies that preclude a coherent summary of effectiveness; or no indication that the outcomes measured to date, by themselves, represent success in improving health.
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Am J Prev Med ;20 3 Suppl Although sun-protective behaviors were increased islnads school-based programs, the specific effect could not be attributed to one specific intervention characteristic. Data collection instrument and procedure for systematic reviews in the Guide to Community Preventive Services.
Land, M. The recommended interventions had small to moderate behavior change scores.
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Developing an evidence-based Guide to Community Preventive Servicesmethods. Woomen provide a broader taxonomy of interventions that deserve further testing and evaluation, and the documentation of research gaps in these reviews could potentially help to improve the next generation of research. Guerra, M. The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer.
The two Task Force recommendations educational and policy approaches in primary schools, and educational and policy approaches for adults in outdoor recreational or tourism settings are based on improving covering-up behaviors. Nolan, M. Armstrong BK, Kricker A.
Int J Cancer ; Prevention of skin cancer. Team members also reviewed reference lists and consulted with other specialists in the field e. Worden, Ph.
Implementation advice is also available elsewhere 24 Atlanta: American Cancer Society, New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers; For example, a school-based program might involve components of policy, such as establishing school guidelines, in tandem with implementation of one-on-one didactic and interactive sessions regarding adapting sun-protective behaviors.